Retraction Guidelines    

JIM adheres to the COPE Retraction Guidelines which state:

"Retraction is a mechanism for correcting the literature and alerting readers to articles that contain such seriously flawed or erroneous content or data that their findings and conclusions cannot be relied upon. If only a small part of an article reports flawed data or content, authors may be invited to rectify the issues by a correction. Retractions are also used to alert readers to cases of redundant publication (i.e. when authors present the same data in several publications), plagiarism, and failure to disclose a major competing interest likely to influence interpretations or recommendations. The main purpose of retractions is to correct the literature and ensure its integrity rather than to punish authors who misbehave."


Complaints and appeals are to be directed to JIM Editors-in-Chief or Publisher


Author/s Reponsibility

It is the author's responsibility to promptly inform JIM's Editors-in-Chief or publisher and collaborate with the Editors-in-Chief in retracting or rectifying the paper as deemed necessary by the Editors-in-Chief, if the author has identified a substantial error or inaccuracy in their published work. Similarly, if the Editors-in-Chief or publisher becomes aware through a third party that a published work contains an error, it is the author's duty to cooperate with the Editors-in-Chief, including providing requested evidence. 


Correction or Retraction?


JIM Editors-In-Chief will consider retracting a publication if:

  • They have clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of major error (eg, miscalculation or experimental error), or as a result of fabrication (eg, of data) or falsification (eg, image manipulation).
  • It constitutes plagiarism.
  • The findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper attribution to previous sources or disclosure to the editor, permission to republish, or justification (ie, cases of redundant publication).
  • It contains material or data without authorisation for use.
  • Copyright has been infringed or there is some other serious legal issue (eg, libel, privacy).
  • It reports unethical research.
  • It has been published solely on the basis of a compromised or manipulated peer review process.
  • The author(s) failed to disclose a major competing interest (a.k.a. conflict of interest) that, in the view of the editor, would have unduly affected interpretations of the work or recommendations by editors and peer reviewers.
    (Source: COPE's Retraction Guidelines).


JIM Editors-In-Chief will consider issuing an expression of concern if:

  • they receive inconclusive evidence of research or publication misconduct by the authors.
  • there is evidence that the findings are unreliable but the authors’ institution will not investigate the case.
  • they believe that an investigation into alleged misconduct related to the publication either has not been, or would not be, fair and impartial or conclusive.
  • an investigation is underway but a judgement will not be available for a considerable time.
    (Source: COPE's Retraction Guidelines).


JIM Editors-In-Chief will consider issuing a correction if:

  • a small portion of an otherwise reliable publication proves to be misleading (especially because of honest error)
  • the author / contributor list is incorrect (i.e. a deserving author has been omitted or somebody who does not meet authorship criteria has been included).
    (Source: COPE's Retraction Guidelines).

Retractions are not usually appropriate if:

  • a change of authorship is required but there is no reason to doubt the validity of the findings.
    (Source: COPE Council. COPE Retraction guidelines — English.


Notices of retraction should:

  • be linked to the retracted article wherever possible (i.e. in all electronic versions).
  • clearly identify the retracted article (e.g. by including the title and authors in the retraction heading).
  • be clearly identified as a retraction (i.e. distinct from other types of correction or comment).
  • be published promptly to minimize harmful effects from misleading publications.
  • be freely available to all readers (i.e. defacto applicable as JIM is full open access).
  • state who is retracting the article.
  • state the reason(s) for retraction (to distinguish misconduct from honest error).
  • avoid statements that are potentially defamatory or libellous.
    (Source: COPE's Retraction Guidelines).


JIM also adheres to the COPE's Retraction guidance around:

  • What form should retraction take?
  • Which publications should be retracted?
  • Who should issue the retraction?
  • When should a publication be retracted?
  • What should editors do in the face of inconclusive evidence about a publication’s reliability?
  • Should retraction be applied in cases of disputed authorship?
  • Are there grounds for legal proceedings if an author sues a journal for retracting, or refusing to retract, a publication?


Editorial contact: