The Democratization of Science: Blue Ocean or Chimera?


Anne-Laure Mention
João José Pinto Ferreira
Marko Torkkeli


Knowledge builds on itself. Scientific progress is achieved through piecewise advances, and is based on the enlightenment of prior evidence and discoveries. Accessing prior information has been a tremendously complex venture for centuries, and restricted to the privileged few. Technological progress and namely, the advent of Internet have opened a world of possibilities, including the instant sharing and diffusion of information. Reaping the full benefits of technological advances has however been prevented by the prerogatives of the publishing industry, which have been increasingly challenged over the last two decades. Major historical milestones include the creation of, an online repository of electronic preprints in 1991; the launch of SciELO in Brazil in 1997 and its extension to 14 countries; the foundation of PLOS by the Public Library of Science, established as an alternative to traditional publishing and nowadays known as PLOS ONE, which is by far the world’s largest series of journals with over 30,000 papers published in 2015; the Budapest Declaration on Open Access in 2002; the campaign Access2Research and the US Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act, a foundational piece in the establishment of Open Access in the USA; and the initiative of the European Commission to require all research publications funded under Horizon2020 to be openly accessible, free of charge.  All these initiatives converged towards the same aim: fostering free and unrestricted access to publications, so as to ensure the widespread and rapid diffusion of research findings within, across and outside scientific communities. (...)


Author Biography

João José Pinto Ferreira, Faculdade de Engenharia - Universidade do Porto / INESC TEC

Born in 1964, João José Pinto Ferreira got is Licenciatura in Electrical Engineering and Computers at Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto (FEUP) in1987; MSc Electrical Engineering and Computers at FEUP in 1991; PhD in Electrical Engineering and Computers at FEUP in 1995; Habilitation (“Agregação”) in Industrial Engineering and Management in April, 2011. Positions Held: 1987-1995, FEUP, Assistant Lecturer; 1995 – 2003: FEUP, Assistant Professor; 2003-today: FEUP, Associate Professor. At FEUP (1997-2000) also he was Member of the Executive Board of the Electrical Engineering Department and since 2004 Director of the Master Degree of Innovation and Technological Entrepreneurship. From October 2004 to July 2007 assumed a joint coordination of INESC Porto Unit of Information and Communication Systems. In January 2008 moved to the newly created Department in FEUP, “Industrial Engineering and Management Department”. Responsible since March 2007 for the pre-incubation activities at UPTec (U.Porto business incubator), where, since Sep/2008, he has been coordinating the STARTUP Program from Junior Achievement at U.Porto. Teaching Activities: Professor at FEUP in Information Systems and Innovation & Entrepreneurship. Research Activity: in 1988 starts his collaboration as researcher at Institute of Engineering Systems and Computers (INESC). His R&D activity, developed 1st at INESC and later at INESC Porto, started in 1988 and concentrated in areas such as: Enterprise Integration, supporting Architectures and Life-cycle. Executable Models. Enterprise Modeling. João José is member of Portuguese Engineers Society, of the IFIP WG5.12, Working Group on Architectures for Enterprise Integration and Expert to the Comité Européen de Normalisation, CEN / TC 310 / WG1, Advanced Manufacturing Technologies, Systems Architecture. Along with his R&D activity he assumed different roles in several R&D european projects: Participation as work-package leader and project leader in ESPRIT 5478 SHOP-CONTROL as workpackage leader in ESPRIT 8865 Real-I-CIM, as expert in ESPRIT 9245 PASSE, as work-package leader in ESPRIT 20544 X-CITTIC. Participation as Project Coordinator and Technical Manager of COBIP UR 4002 - SECTOR 6 do TELEMATICS APPLICATIONS PROGRAMME (Jan98/Dec/99). Project; Project Coordinator and Technical Manager of the DAMASCOS project IST-1999-11850 (Jan2000/Dec2001). Technical Coordinator the European projects B-MAN and (Apr2002/Set2004). Publications: João José has so far published more than 60 scientific publications, including Journals, Conferences, book chapters with peer review. He was also Guest Editor at the International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing and editor of a book published by Kluwer Academic Publisher entitled: “e-Manufacturing: Business Paradigms and Supporting Technologies" (Hardcover) ISBN-10: 1402076541. He has so far been responsible for the supervision of several PhD’s and MSc’s. Business Roles: General Assembly President of Tomorrow Options Microelectronics S.A. since March 2007. General Assembly Secretary of “Projecto Construir - Projecto de intervenção Social” since October 2009.