A systematic review of Intelligent Fault-Tolerant Protection Scheme for Multi-terminal HVDC Grids

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Analcísio António Rodino
Rui Esteves Araújo


Due to the advancement of power electronics devices and control techniques, the modular multilevel converter (MMC) has become the most attractive converter for multiterminal direct current (MTDC) grids thanks to its most relevant features, such as modularity and scalability. Despite their advantages, conventional MMCs face a major challenge with: i) fault-tolerant operation strategy; i) energy losses in conversion; iii) lack of DC fault handling capability. This paper provides a systematic review to identify the gaps in the literature about Intelligent Fault-Tolerant Protection Schemes for multi-terminal HVDC grids. Through the bibliometric analysis, it was possible to identify topics still to be developed within the four main clusters (Offshore wind farms, Wind turbines, Voltage Source Converters, and Wind power). The research topic opens three research paths: the first is the analysis of failures in HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) grid equipment by the FDD (Fault Detection and Diagnosis) method; the second is failure analysis by the IFDD (Inverse Fault Detection and Diagnosis) method and the third is the possibility of interconnecting the different energy generation zones with different frequencies.


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Author Biography

Analcísio António Rodino, Universidade do Porto : Faculdade de Engenharia

Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 PORTO Portugal