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Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have emerged as a promising technology for renewable energy generation due to their low cost and low carbon footprint compared to traditional silicon-based solar cells. However, some main challenges associated with PSCs lie ahead, namely their toxicity and lack of stability, particularly under factors such as light, temperature, oxygen, and humidity. We focus on the lack of stability of PSCs and the various ways it can be mitigated. We explore the use of vapor deposition methods, which can increase the crystallinity of the perovskite and thus improve stability and lifetime. Furthermore, we look into the potential of ionic liquids (ILs) as promising materials for improving the stability and performance of PSCs. ILs have advantageous physicochemical properties that make them suitable as an additive or interfacial layer in PSCs. They optimize the interface contact, improve energy level matching, suppress ion migration, and increase hydrophobicity, which inhibits the decomposition of the device in humid environments. ILs have also been used as precursors in the solution-based fabrication of perovskite thin films for PSC applications, assisting in the perovskite crystallization. Several studies have shown that the incorporation of ILs in PSCs can increase stability, lifetime, and efficiency. Overall, the existing research indicates that ILs hold great promise as materials for improving the stability and performance of PSCs, which could have significant implications for the development of low-cost, renewable energy technologies.
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